Friday, March 31, 2017

Introduction to Flowmeters

magnetic flowmeters
Magnetic flowmeters
(courtesy of Siemens)
Flowmeters measure the rate or quantity of moving fluids, in most cases liquid or gas, in an open channel or closed conduit. There are two basic flow measuring systems: those which produce volumetric flow measurements and those delivering a weight or mass based measurement. These two systems, required in many industries such as power, chemical, and water, can be integrated into existing or new installations.

Turbine flow meter
Turbine flow meter
internal view
(courtesy of Niagara)
For successful integration, the flow measurement systems can be installed in one of several methods, depending upon the technology employed by the instrument. For inline installation, fittings that create upstream and downstream connections that allow for flowmeter installation as an integral part of the piping system. Another configuration, direct insertion, will have a probe or assembly that extends into the piping cross section. There are also non-contact instruments that clamp on the exterior surface of the piping add gather measurements through the pipe wall without any contact with the flowing media.

Because they are needed for a variety of uses and industries, there are multiple types of flowmeters classified generally into four main groups: mechanical, inferential, electrical, and other.
Variable Area Flowmeters
Variable Area Flowmeters
(courtesy of Siemens)

Quantity meters, more commonly known as positive displacement meters, mass flowmeters, and fixed restriction variable head type flowmeters all fall beneath the mechanical category. Fixed restriction variable head type flowmeters use different sensors and tubes, such as orifice plates, flow nozzles, and venturi and pitot tubes.

Inferential flowmeters include turbine and target flowmeters, as well as variable area flowmeters also known as rotameters.

Laser doppler anemometers, ultrasonic flowmeters, and electromagnetic flowmeters are all electrical-type flowmeters.

For any flowmeter application or question, visit Ives Equipment at www.ivesequipment.com or call (877) 768-1600.

Wednesday, March 29, 2017

Instrumentation and Controls for the Grain Industry

instruments and control for grain producers
Instruments and control for grain producers.
Abstracted with permission from the Siemens "For the Love of Grain" article.  View the complete document at  the bottom of this post or download it from Ives Equipment here.

A successful grain merchant during the 1840s is considering expansion in the coming years. Recent years have been fruitful, but there are rumors of a new invention on the market: a grain elevator. Claims are that this elevator is able to unload more than 1,000 bushels each hour! Compare this to current operations where workers carry sacks of grain on their backs from wagons to waiting ships. Our grain merchant has seen firsthand the hazards of this process – everything from suffocating and explosive grain dust to the daily stresses on workers’ bodies. Will this new technology be able to increase the merchant’s profits as well as make a safer working environment for employees?

Over a century and a half later, mechanized equipment is now an essential part of the grain industry, from planting and growing to harvesting, handling, and milling grain. Your challenges are still the same as those of nineteenth century grain operators, though – how can you improve processes and cut costs while also increasing safety?

Promoting a culture of safety

Working with grain has the potential to be deadly, especially when grain is in motion. Similar to ‘quicksand,’ moving grain can bury a worker in seconds. In 2010, U.S. grain operators reported that fifty-one workers had been trapped in grain, more than in any year since Purdue University began collecting data on grain entrapments in 1978. Sadly, almost half of these entrapments led to fatalities.

Increasing automation

To prevent deadly occurrences such as these, the grain industry is increasingly taking steps to reduce grain handling and storage hazards. Improving efficiency in grain facilities through automation is becoming a growing industry trend. A concern for safety is one driver behind automating operations, as a reduction in human interactions with grain decreases the occurrence of accidents.

Another reason for the push towards automation is that owners are constantly looking to increase production and reduce expenses while still producing a high quality product. A solution is to invest in automated processes in a facility. Many facilities have moved to complete automation of production, termed Totally Integrated Automation (TIA).

Refining inventory management 

Tracking inventory in grain silos is a significant component of a successful grain operation. Managing raw materials and finished products is essential for keeping processes efficient and optimizing inventory ordering and shipments. By knowing where materials are located, companies can use these resources more effectively, decreasing human intervention and increasing efficiency. As well, checking bin levels on a regular basis requires substantial labor costs. To make inventory track-ing faster and more streamlined, the industry is continually moving towards automated inventory management.

Read complete article below:

Wednesday, March 22, 2017

New Ives Equipment Video

Ives Equipment, founded in 1954, provides a diverse range of process control equipment, including valves, regulators, wireless products, flow products, pressure gauges, control products, level instrumentation, sanitary products, temperature instruments, analytical products, electric heat trace and bio-pharmaceutical products.

For more than 60 years, Ives Equipment Corporation has successfully served the industries of eastern and central Pennsylvania, Delaware, Maryland, metro NY, New Jersey, Virginia and Washington DC with the latest in process control equipment and services.

The Ives business is built on a foundation of quality people, highly trained and experienced, who take a keen interest in finding the optimum solutions to customers' control problems.

Wednesday, March 15, 2017

When It Comes to Pressure & Temperature Switches, Understand the Difference Between Switch Normal and Process Normal

Diagram of pressure switch
Diagram of pressure
switch. Note the SPDT
electrical switch on top.
  (Courtesy of United
Electric Controls
)
The normal status of a switch can be a confusing aspect of understanding the function of connected electrical and logic components in a process control application. The misunderstanding stems from the ambiguity of the word normal. Typically, electrical switch contacts are classified as being normally-open or normally-closed, referring to the open or closed status of the contacts under normal conditions. The key in understanding the normal state of a switch contact requires one to dissociate from their thinking, the concept or definition of normal used in everyday conversation. Where, among friends in casual conversation, the word normal tends to refer to what is expected, the normal status of the switch is, explicitly, its contacts electrical status when no stimulus is applied, that is, when the switch is at rest. An applied example of this definition is a momentary-contact pushbutton switch is not being pressed, because, when the pushbutton is not being pressed, the switch is experiencing no physical stimulation. Electrical schematic drawings always represent switches in their normal status. When an electrical switch on a lamp is in its normally-open state, the switch is open while receiving no physical stimulation.

Temperature switch (UEC)
Temperature switch (courtesy of
United Electric Controls)
The concept of normal is somewhat more complex when applied to pressure and temperature switches. Pressure and temperature switches are actuated, not by electrical signal or human contact, but by process related stimuli, i.e. temperature, flow, pressure, or level. A flow switch is actuated by a defined amount of flow through a pipe.  Lets say a flow switch is engineered to trigger an alarm when the flow rate inside a pipe is below a certain level. Even if the contacts of the flow switch are designated as being in their normally-closed status, the switch will be open when enough fluid is flowing through the pipe. The normal switch status (closed) indicates an abnormal process flow rate condition, because the switch is only going to be in its normal electrical status when the flow is low. Considering this inverse nature (normal switch status indicating abnormal process status), switch contacts are conventionally represented in accordance with the switch operation and not the process operation. The manufacturers of the pressure and temperature switches cannot predict the normal status of particular processes in which their switches will be used. By utilizing the conventional switch terminology, there is a common status designation for the normal status of the switch. The designation is applicable and readable regardless of the process conditions of the specific industry using the switch. This convention provides for universal comprehension of control system electrical schematics and other symbolic representations of control system operation.
Pressure switch
Pressure switch (courtesy of
United Electric Controls)

In making the connection between the normal state of switch contacts and the normal state of a process, one should relate the switch state to the process condition which would serve as the stimulus to change the switch state. For a limit switch, which responds to physical contact by an object, normal means the target is not contacting the switch. For a proximity switch, normal means the target is far away. A normal pressure switch condition occurs when the pressure is low, or may even indicate a vacuum. Level switches are normal when the level is empty. Normal for a temperature switch means the temperature is low. Flow switches are normal when there is a low flow rate, or the fluid is stopped. Both an understanding of normal as defined by the manufacturer of the switch and normal in terms of industry specific processes is necessary to correctly interpret the status of an operation. Once the concept of normal used in everyday conversation is uncoupled from your process control thinking, things fall into place easily.